Abstracts zur PSM-Toxikologie / Ökologie:
 

  • Müller, J. & Werner, J. (1975): FL 229 - akarizides Spritzmittel. - Nachrichtenbl. Pflanzenschutz 29(1): 17-18.

Zusammenfassung
Der Einsatz des Spezialakarizids Fentoxan wird im Zusammenhang mit den ökologischen Begebenheiten (einschließlich Rückstandsverhalten und Warmblütertoxizität) erörtert und der Einsatz für die integrierte Schädlingsbekämpfung empfohlen.
Fentoxan (EC 40) ist in Apfelanlagen gegen P. ulmi im April und Mai (hoher Eianteil in der Population) allein wirksam und etwa ab Juni in Kombination mit adultizid stärker wirksamen Akariziden entsprechend der regionalen Populationsentwicklung einzusetzen.


  • Müller, J. (1979): Laboruntersuchungen über PSM-Nebenwirkungen auf Larven von Coccinella septempunctata L. (Ins., Coleoptera). - Biol. Rundschau 17: 124-127.

Summary
Laboratory investigations on the side-effects of some pesticides to larvae of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Ins., Coleoptera).
The toxicological affect ("lethal side-effects") of some plant protectives (table 1) is tested by exposing the larvae predators to a fresh dry pesticide film, and via food (Aphis fabae) at recommended concentrations. Ziuneb, Znieb + Sulphur, Fentoxan (Fanazox) were found to have a high degree of tolerance to predatory coccinellids, followed by Benlate (Benomyl), Betanal (Phenmedipham), and tribuphon (Butonat). Bi 58 (Dimethoate) produced a lower tolerance. The active substances Parathionmethyl, Lindan, Endosulfan, Methoxychlor, Dichlotvos, Camphechlor, and Demephion caused high acute mortality (table 2).


  • Haberzettl, R. & Müller, J. (1979): Mutagene Effekte durch Dinitro-o-kresol bei Drosophila melanogaster. - Biol. Rdsch. 17: 40-42.

Summary
Mutagenicity of dinithro-ortho-cresol in Drosophila melanogaster.
The insecticid/acaricid dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC) was tested for mutagenicity in Drosophila melanogaster. The frequencies of induced sex-linked recessive lethals (BASC-test) in praemeiotic and postmeiotic germ cell stages of spermatogene is were determined after feeding for 3 days, in each case. The mutagenic activity of DNOC at concentrations of 50 to 200 ppm in postmeiotic germ cell stages (0,70 %) > praemeiotic stages (0,29 %). The frequency of spontaneously occuring lethality was 0,06 %. The data presented here show significant differences. Dimethylnitrosamine (500 ppm) induced a rate of 21,0 % of lethals.


  • Rätz, k.-H., A. Matheus, H. Heise, J. Müller & Haberzettl, R. (1979):
    Über den Einfluß eines Dinitro-o-kresol-haltigen Pflanzenschutzmittels (Hedolit) auf die menschliche Reproduktion. - Dermatol. Monatsschr. 165(9): 658-664.

Summary
The influence of a dinitrocresol (DNOC) containing herbicide on human reproductivity.
After epicutaneous application of Hedolit to guinea pigs the above mentioned substance was found less concentrated in the semen and in the testis than in the serum.
Hedolit concentrations, as they were found in the serum, lead already to motility limitations of human sperma and cause a small mutageneous effect in drosophila melanogaster. The chosen epicutaneous modus of application did not lead to such traceable concentrations of Hedolit in the semen and in the testis.

Zusammenfassung
Nach epikutaner Applikation von Hedolit bei Meerschweinchen konnte die Substanz im Ejakulat und im Hodengewebe nur in geringerer Konzentration nachgewiesen werden als im Serum. Hedolitkonzentrationen, wie sie im Serum erreicht wurden, führen bereits zu Motilitätseinschränkungen humaner Spermien und bewirken einen geringen mutagenen Effekt bei Drosophila melanogaster. Dagegen sind für die im Hoden und Ejakulat nachweisbaren Hedolitkonzentrationen solche Auswirkungen bei dem gewählten epikutanen Applikationsmodus nicht zu beweisen.


  • Müller, J. & Haberzettl, R. (1980): Mutagenicity of DNOC in Drosophila Melanogaster. - Arch. Toxicol., Suppl. 4: 59-61.

Summary
The insecticide/acaricide dinitro-otho-cresol (DNOC) was tested for mutagenicity in BASC or Muller-5 test with Drosophila melanogastér. The frequencies of induced sexlinked recessive lethals in premeiotic and postmeiotic germ cell stages of spermatogebesis were determined after exposure aof adult wild-type males by oral application of DNOC. Sex-linked recessive lethals were scored in the F2 generation according to standard procedures.
The mutagenic activity of DNOC at concentrations of 0.25 to 1.01 mM (50-200 ppm) in postmeiotic germ cell stages (11 lethals/1570 chromosomes tested = 0.70 %) > premeiotic stages (3/1001 = 0.29 %). The mutations rate in all germ cell stages was 0.59 % (18/3140). The lowest effective concentration for the induction of recessive lethals in nature sperm was 0.25 mM which is 1/3 to 1/2 LD50 which is approximately 0.61 nM. The frequency of spontaneously occuring lethality was 0.06 (1/1718). The data presented here show significant differences in KASTENBAUM-BOWMAN test.
Dimethylnitrosamin (6.8 mM = 500 ppm) induced a rate of 21.0 % of lethals (112/534).


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